Egypt Second National Communication Under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
Coastal resources are expected to suffer direct impacts through sea level rise and inundation of low elevation areas. It is estimated that a sea level rise of 50 cm combined with local Nile Delta subsidence present serious impacts on low land Delta regions and adjacent highly populated cities such as Alexandria and Port Said. Coastal zones are also expected to suffer from indirect impacts such as salt water intrusion and contamination of ground water resources, exacerbating soil salinity and affecting food security.
In addition, the increase in frequency and severity of storm surges will definitely impact coastal structures. Furthermore, coastal areas below sea level constitute high risk areas. Direct and indirect impacts are expected to lead to the immigration of 6 to 7 million people from the Nile Delta. As for adaptation options, it is realized that these are site dependant. However, changes in land use, integrated coastal zone management, and proactive planning for protecting coastal zones, are necessary adaptation policies.