• Dec 13, 2011

    Socio-economic development in Arab LDCs has been shaped in the context of the political economy of rentier states and a delayed demographic transition. The tribal identity that defines these countries has been reinforced and mal-formed through patron-client relationships promoted by states using revenues from resource-based activities to accentuate tribal differences. Thus undermining a rule and merit based system for making decisions about the use of public assets and policy choices thus breaking traditional symbiotic relationships amongst different population groups, and rendering public investments ineffective, by using them as tools in the patron-client relationship. Private investment is also discouraged due to poor enforcement of contracts.

  • Dec 1, 2011

    This chapter will examine impediments to both economic growth and human development in the OPT. It will be shown that Israeil policies and practices throughout out the OPT, particularly movement and access restrictions, have constrained economic growth and had a devastating effect on the pervasiveness of poverty. Poverty here is defined as not merely being a lack of income but “ a human condition characterised by the sustained or chronic deprivation of the resources, capabilities, choices, security and power necessary for the enjoyment of an adequate standard of living and other civil, cultural, economic, political and social rights. The effectiveness of aid in alleviating poverty and contributing to long-term sustainable development as well as the politicization of aid, will also be examined.

  • Dec 1, 2011

    For Egypt, particularly, previous studies on labour market and poverty revealed that the unemployed are not necessarily the poor or the illiterate, and rather, the overwhelming majority of the unemployed are certificate holders. Meanwhile the informal sector has been increasingly growing and absorbing high percentage of poor workers working informally. Without social protection, with low wages, low productivity, and working under bad conditions. This is not surprising given that, too often, the poor cannot afford to be without work and must reconcile with whatever type of employment opportunities are available. Thus, effective poverty reduction policies must also target under-employment and informal employment.

  • Dec 1, 2011

    As recent events in the Arab region have amply demonstrated, the problems of poverty. Unemployment and social and political exclusion cannot be forever ignored without their arising demands for change in the basic arrangements of society. Today, the dramatic revolts in diverse Arab societies have highlighted the failures of the pre-existing development model, as well ass the necessity and opportunity for transformation, raising the hope that an Arab awakening can initiate an Arab renaissance. This second Arab Development Challenges Report makes an outstannding contribution in this regard, surveying the challenges presented by the current economic and social situation and proposing approaches to them

  • Jun 13, 2011

    This report takes stock of achievements made in 2010/2011 and provides momentum for meeting future demands. Going forward, UNDP will continue to work through its global networks to link ideas and best practice with nations and communities which are seeking solutions to their development challenges.

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